to Sramana Bhagvan Mahavira, there are four types of Dhyana. (Meditation).
To keep the mind always
engaged in one thought continuously or to concentrate the mind only on one thing or
thought, is called Dhyana (Meditation). This meditation may be auspicious and
proper or inauspicious and improper.
Thus, there are four types
of mediation on the basis of auspiciousness or inauspiciousness.
1. Artadhyana -
(Inauspicious meditation on unhappiness) - To be eager and agitated; (1) to get rid of an unpleasant thing or an
unpleasant individual; (2) to get a pleasant thing, which has been lost; (3) to get rid of
a disease and (4) to see that the available comforts and enjoyments are not lost - is
Artadhyana (meditation of an unhappy person).
(1) To be troubled, (2) to
feel sorry, (3) to cry, (4) to lament loudly - these constitute the characteristics of
One who engages in
artadhyana is born in the lower order of mammals.
(Meditation on cruel and angry thoughts) - To think of violence, untruth, and theft for the protection of
available means of enjoyment, is Raudra Dhyana. Raudra means
cruel. To think in a cruel and murderous manner or inclination is Raudra
The practice of greater or
lesser violence, collection of and training in murderous weapons, not to repent for
ones faults till death - these are the characteristics of this dhyana.
One who resorts to raudra
mediation goes to hell. The aforesaid two meditations are not worth resorting to.
(Meditation on religious matters) - To interpret the meaning of Agamas (Scriptures) and the words of the
Vitaragas, is - Dharmadhyana.
To create interest in the
words of the Vitaragas and Tirthankaras, to show feelings and make attempts to behave
according to their advice - these are the characteristics of this dhyana.
4. Sukla Dhyana -
This has 4 types :
(1) Bheda-Cintana (Contemplation of difference) - To contemplate that the body and the
soul are different, is called Prthaktva - Vitarka - Savicara.
(2) Abhedacinatna (Contemplation of non-difference) To contemplete on the form of the soul
- I am the soul - is called Ekatvavitarka - vicara.
(3) To suppress the activity of the mind, the speech and the body is called
(4) Steady condition under suppression of subtle activity like breathing is called
absence of delusion and steadiness in the face of difficulties - these are the
characteristics of the four types of sukla Dhyana.
He who takes to the sukla
dhyana attains moksa (liberation) and attains to the class of Siddhas.
For further study, please
read Yogasastra, Yogadipaka, Jnanarnava Dhyanasataka,