The following are the
special rules which Jain Monks always observe :
1. Jain monks wear unstitched white clothes.
2. The are bare - footed and bare handed. They do not use caps or
umbrellas or put on boots, chappals or sandals.
3. Jain monks do not use vehicles of any sort. They go from one place to
another on foot. They always walk on foot.
4. Jain monks do not possess any house. They stay in Upasrayas of
pausadhshalas constructed by Jains for worship.
5. They do not stay permanently in Upasrayas. They remain confined to one
place for four months during the rainy season. They move from one place to
another during the remaining eight months and preach religion to people.
6. Jain monks, necessarily keep an Ogho and a muhapatti with them. When
they go out or when they are on a journey they keep a stick also.
7. Jain monks do not go out after sunset.
8. Jain monks do not take water or food before sunrise and after sunset.
They take food, etc. 48 minutes after sunrise. They do not take any food
or water at night after sunset. Thus, they abstain from food at night.
9. Jain monks do not cook for themselves. They do not get their food
cooked by others, Just as a cow moves from one place to another and eats
grass, so Jain monks collect proper alms from several places. This alms is
called ‘gocari’. They use wooden vessels to accept ‘gocari’.
10. Jain monks drink boiled water all through life.
11. Jain monks do not get their hair cut. They do not shave by themselves.
Once in a year they pull out the hair of their head and beard with hand,
This process in called ;Loca’. Jain female nuns also perform ‘Loca’.
12. They bless, By Saying ‘Dharmalabha’, they bless those who bow down to
their feet, always wish that all souls become religious and follow
religion. Hence they speak only one word by way of blessing - Dharmalabha.
13.Jain mnoks are engaged day and night in study, meditation, prayers,
It is very difficult and
tough to live the life of a Jain monk. It is not possible for everybody to live such a
life; hence Bhagvan Mahavira prepared another code of conduct for householders. This code
of conduct is called Deshavirati Dharma.
The Code of conduct for a householder
Those persons, who follow
this religion are called Shravakas. The code of conduct framed by Bhagvan Mahavira, for
the Sravakas and the Sravikas consists of 12 rules (vows).
There are five anu-vratas,
three gunavratas and four shikshavratas or 12 vows.
A Sravaka and a Sravika
also have to follow the five vows of non-violence, truth, non-stealing, celibacy and
non-possession. It is not possible to observe these vows completely and fully in
day-to-day life. The householders have to commit sins of violence, untruth, stealing,
copulation, and possession willy nilly. The rules by which one can save himself from these
sins, to a maximum possible extent, are called Sthulavratas or Anuvratas.
As these vows are limited
in their scope, they are called Anuvratas. The word sthula is
attached to them to show their limited nature.
The pious motive behind
these anuvratas is that householders may save themselves from intentional and unnecessary
non-stealing, celibacy and non-possession-these are the principal qualities of the soul,
The vows of the develppment of these qualities are called gunavratas.
The names of these vratas
are Digvarta Bhogopabhoga vrata parimana and anartha - dandaviramana vrata.
As aspirant has constantly
to follow the life of an ascetic, by observing the five anuvratas and three gunavratas. He
has to take training to lead the life of an ascetic. The rules about training for the life
of a monk are called Shikshavrata.
about the 12 Vratas
Viramana vrata (the vow of stopping from taking life of a living organism).
Pranatipata means taking life. Pranatipataviramana means to avoid taking the life of
others. This is the vow of giving up violence for selfish ends or pleasure.
Example : He who takes this vow, does not bind any living being for a bad
purpose, does not kill him nor put more burden on him or kill him by hunger or thirst.
One has to observe complete non-violence in this vow.
mana-vrata (the vow of avoiding to tell lies), the vow not to tell lies on any occasion or
for any reason of for selfish ends or for fun.
Example : He who accepts this vow does not give false evidence, does not
prepare wrong documents, does not commit breach of trust, does not give wrong advice or
does not boast.
(the vow not to steal anything belonging to others for selfish ends or for fun).
Example : He who accepts this vow does not steal or does not accept
(the vow to avoid extra-material sexual relations).
Example : He who accepts this vow is satisfied with his own wife. He is
He avoids passion-exciting reading, talks and sights, etc.
(the vow to put a limit to worldly possessions and daily necessities).
Example : He who accepts this vow does not amass things to acquire a lot
of profit. He keeps only minimum daily necessities.
The aforesaid five vows are 5 anuvratas.
Dik means disha (direction). (the vow to put a limit to moving about in all directions).
Example : He who accepts this vow, fixes the number of his travels and
tours and puts a limit to the area of movement. He decides not to travel by sea, or by air
and restricts touring to certain countries during the year.
Certain things are consumed only once e.g. food, drinks etc. Certain things are used more
than once, e.g. ornaments, clothes, furniture, vehicles, etc. This vow restricts the
proporation or number of Bhoga and upbhoga.
Example : He who accepts this vow decides that he shall use only 6 pairs
of clothes, or use only two motor cars.
(the vow to give up unnecessary actions).
Example : He who accepts this vow decides that he shall not see a drama,
a film or a circus show. It is not necessary to see a drama or a cinema to live ones
life. It is a bad thing. He gives up such bad things, which are not necessary in life.
The aforesaid vratas 6, 7, 8 are called gunavratas.
It is a ritual performance, wherein, the person undertakes study, meditation, prayer,etc.
for 48 minutes by sitting on a pious seat.
: The vow to delimit for a day, only the movement in a direction as accepted in the 6th
vrata and the proporation of bhogopabhoga as fixed in the seventh vrata. A man does not
need to travel a long distances everyday. He does not enjoy all objects of enjoyment
everyday. Hence in this vrata limits concerning daily movement in different directions and
concerning bhogopabhoga are fixed. 14 rules have been framed to observe this vrata easily.
(Details about these rules are given under daily duties.)
- Performance of a certain special ritual with penance of 12 to 24 hours or for one or
more days, by giving up all household and business activities.
: The vow to serve according to ones capacity, monks, nans, sravakas and sravikas,
with food, clothes, etc. The person who accepts this vow honours the monks, the nums, the
Sravakas and the Sravikas by offering to them their daily necessities voluntarily and
The aforesaid 9, 10, 11 and 12 Vratas are the four siksavratas. Without the distinction of
caste, sect, colour or country, any man or woman can adopt these 12 vratas for some time
or for the whole life.
Mahavira said that those who have accepted these 12 vratas of a shravaka should not
undertake 15 types of professions (Karmadana).
1. Angara-karma -
That occupation in which fire is used to
a very large extent. For example in manufacturing of crackers, salts, chemicals, medicinal
ashes, etc., fire is used.
2. Vanakarma - The occupation in which trees, etc. are
cut. For example : cutting of forests, keeping pastures, or collecting barks of trees.
3. Sakatakarma -The occupation in which carts, tongas,
horse-carts, rickshaws, motors, cycles, buses, etc. are manufactured or sold.
4. Bhatakakarma -
The occupation in which money is earned
by collecting rent. For example renting horses, bullocks, rickshaws, taxis, etc.
5. Sfotakakarma -
The occupation of digging and blasting as
in taking contract for digging wells, tanks, tunnels, drains, etc.
of ivory, hides, feathers of birds, musk etc.
wherein small living beings are killed as in the trade of lac produced from various trees,
indigo, soaps, soda ash, etc.
8. Rasavanijya -
The trades of honey, butter, win ghee,
9. Kesavanijya -
The trade of selling human hair and the
hair of animals or the business of selling men and women (slavery), etc.
10. Visavanijya -
The business of manufacturing or selling
poisons of various types, poisonous objects, fatal weapons, etc.
occupation of operating machines, or selling or giving them on rent.
Nirlanchanakarma - The
occupation of cutting the limbs of cattle and birds, of castrating them, or
13. Davadanavakarma - The occupation of burning jungles,
houses, buses etc. for the sake of money or through enmity.
14. Jalasosanakarma -
The occupation of emptying tanks,
rivers, canals, wells etc.
Asatiposanakarma - The
occupation of selling meat, eggs, fish, etc. or the occupation of keeping trained animals
and birds and of making them perform actions in shows, or prostitution etc.
In these 15 occupations,
living beings are cruelly killed. Sravakas and Sravikas should therefore abstain from
(giving up sinful activities)
Sources of sin
of these, Bhagvan Mahavira has shown 18 sources of big sins. The soul becomes sinful by
coming in contact with these sources. Bhagvan has asked us to abstain from these 18
sources of sin. The following are the 18 sources of sin :-
1. Killing -
2. Telling lies,
4. Sexual activities
5. Attachment to wordly things
17. Telling lies deceitfully
18. Considering wrong theories right and right theories wrong.
Sravakas and Sravikaks, who
undertake the 12 vows have to give up these 18 sins.
Thus, a devotee of
desavirati dharma has to observe 12 Vratas and to give up 15 types of occupations and 18
types of sins.
A monk, a
nun, a Sravaka and a Sravika have to perform six duties daily and necessarily. These
duties are called Avasyakas. Avasyaka means necessary duty. They
are six. They are as follows :
1. Samayika -
It is a ritual performance, wherein
self-study, meditation, chanting, etc. are performed for 48 minutes, sitting on an
uncontaminated seat in a sinless and holy place.
Such aids as the katasanu
the caravalo, and the muhapatti are necessary. There is a special ritual for starting and
completing samayika. There are certain sutras for this performance.
2. Caturvisatistava - Caturvinsati means 24; stava means
salutation, worship singing etc. Twenty Four tirthankaras are praised.
3. Vandanaka - To salute monks and
to serve them, to study religion from them and to hear religious discourses from them.
4. Pratikramana -
A special ceremony of atoning for sins
committed knowingly or unknowingly, of confessing them before the preceptors and of asking
for forgiveness for them. Pratikramanas are of 5 types corresponding to different
Rajya Pratikramana (The ceremony to be
performed in the morning
(b) Daivasika Praikramana (The ceremony to be preformed
(c) Paksika pratikramana (The ceremony to be performed
in the evening at the end of a fortnight
(d) Catur-masika pratikramana (The ceremony is
performed in the evening at the end of four months.)
(e) Samvatsari pratikramana (The ceremony is performed
in the evening on the fourth day of the bright half Bhadrapada every year.)
5. Kayotsarga - Kayotsarga means giving up the body.
Meditation with a concentrated mind after forgetting the body. It is a special ceremony of
mediating on the soul by keeping the mind and the body steady. One meditates on the soul
with the help of certain sutras. Navakara, Logassa, etc.
6. Pratyakhyana - To give up something everyday by taking
a vow. For example, to take a vow not to eat or drink after sunset. This vow is known as
Cauvihara. The well-known word for this vow is paccakkhana.
The duty -
Pratyakhyana is mainly concerned with penance. It is also called Paccakkhana. One should
take Paccakkhana, from the preceptor, say of navakarasi, ekasanu, fast, etc. The Sravika
should take the paccakkhana of navkarasi and cauvihara daily at least.
Navakarsi means taking a
vow to brush teeth and take breakfast etc. 48 minutes after sunrise.
Cauvihara means taking a
vow of not eating or drinking anything till 48 minutes after sunset.
Over and above this daily
duty, there is a rule about the use of things of 14 types. Herein the devotee should fix
the number of things to be used. These rules are known as the fourteen rules.
The rules are as follows :
1. To put
a limit to the use of living substances.
2. To fix the number to eatable things (Dravyas).
3. To limit the use to six Vigais - milk, curds, ghee, oil,
jaggery and fried things.
4. To fix the number to boots, chappals, etc (Vanaha).
5. To put a limit to the use of betel leaves, betel nuts, etc. (Tambula).
6. To fix the number to clothes (Vastra).
7. To fix the limit to the use of varieties of flowers, etc. (Fula).
8. To fix the number to vehicles (Vahana).
9. To put a limit to the equipment for sleeping beds, etc (Sayana).
10. To put a limit to the use of cosmetics for the body (Vilepana).
11. To fix a limit to the number of copulations (Sexual intercourses)
12. To fix a limit of the area of directions for coming and going (Disa).
13. To fix a number of baths (Snana).
14. To fix a limit of courses of food and water (Bhojana-Pani).
The devotee of
desaviratidharma decides, at the time of the morning pratikramana, mentally and with his
conscience, that he shall eat during the day only 6 things, he shall eat only twice, he
shall not eat any fried things, he shall not use train for traveling, etc. Thus, these
fourteen rules are to be observed daily and regularly.
The daily routine of the
Sravakas or the Sravikas who undertake these twelve vows is generally as follows :
get up early in the morning and first of all, count the navakar mantra thrice or twelve
2. They perform pratikramana.
3. They go to the temple and bow to the preceptor and take paccakhkhana
of navakarasi, - of fasting according to their capacity, from the preceptor.
4. Morning breakfast.
5. They take bath and worship the Jinas.
6. They listen to the discourses of monks.
7. They take their food before sunset.
8. They perform Pratikramana after sunset.
9. They go to sleep after counting three or twelve times the navkaras.
Over and above these, they perform samayika, self-study, chanting, etc. daily according to
the availability of time.
Literature - Please read
"Acaranga, Dasavaikalika" for a better understanding of the code of conduct for
the monks and nuns.
Please read "Sravaka
Prajnapti," "Dharmabindu," "Dharmasangraha," "Sraddha
Vidhiprakarana," etc. for a detailed study of the twelve vratas of the Sravaka and